HISTORICAL OVERVIEW.Medieval Stanyslaviv
Before 1962, the city of Ivano-Frankivsk was known as Stanyslaviv (Ukrainian: Станиславів; Polish: Stanisławów; Russian: Станислав; German: Stanislau; Latin: Stanislaopolis; Yiddish: .(סטאניסלעוו On the edge of 19-20th century the city was characterized in a following way: «Stanislav is located at 48° 55’ north latitude and 42° 23’ east longitude after Ferro (24° 43’ Greenwich), 140 km away from Lviv and 126 km from Chernivtsi. After Lviv and Krakow it belongs to the best built-up and maintained cities of Halychyna. Located in the middle of a beautiful and fertile valley, traversed by two rivers — the Bystrycya Solotvynska and the Bystrycya Nadvirnyanska — Stanyslaviv has an advantageous geographical position to be considered as the capital of the whole Pokuttya Region». HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Medieval Stanyslaviv According to the official data, on March 21,1662 Stanyslaviv received the right to organize trade fairs, and on May 7 it was granted the status of the city with Magdeburg Rights. Andriy Pototskyi is believed to be the founder of the city. For better understanding of the history of the city we give the fact that its owners were the Pototskies: Andriy (1661-1691), Yosyph, hetman (1691-1751), Stanislav (1751-1760), Vincent (1761- 1770), Yosyph (1770-1771), Kateryna, one of the Pototskies, Kossakovska (1771-1792), Prot Pototskyi (1792- 1801). The golden age of development was during the governing of Andriy and Yosyph Pototskyi. At that time the formation of Stanyslaviv as a fortress took place and main buildings (the part of which we can see nowadays) were erected. In 1732 the population of the city was 3321 people. The first city architects were engineers François Corassini and Karol Benoe. The building of every medieval city began with erection of fortification walls. Ivano-Frankivsk was not an exception and it was built according to François Corassini’s plan of “The Ideal City” in 1672. This notion which was influenced by the Renaissance style in Western Europe, especially in France, meant the creation of such a city fortification which would be well-protected and have quite a many places for population security and withstanding the siege of the enemy, as well asconvenient placement of residetal blocks and sacred buildings.
Stanyslaviv under Austrian & Hungarian Empire
The seize of power by Austrian brought peace for city residents who startwd to settle in the suburbs, outside the fortification. In 1820 a great part of fortification wasdemolished creating favourable conditions for territorial development of the city. There were four squares and 24 streets in the city of that time. In 1782 the city hosted residence for city administration for one of 19 Halychyna districts. The district court (forum nobilium) for civil cases was established in 1786 and in 1797 the criminal court was established. It should be mentioned that the first hospital was built in 1841, and four years later a Jewish hospital was completed. The period when Stanyslaviv was part of Austro-Hungarian Empire was marked by a flourishing in city architectural style. This period can be divided into two stages separated by the event which entered the history with a metaphorical name “Marmalade Fire”. It happened in 1868 when a hostess who lived in today’s Schevchenko Street was preparing marmalade. The wind scattered the embers from her kitchen so far away that a big fire started and 75% of all buildings of the city were burnt.
Stanyslaviv during World War I.
During World War I life in the city was influenced by instability on the Eastern front (AustrianGerman-Russian). This was the worst time in the war. Stanyslaviv was situated on the line of military operations. When in late July the Russians had to leave the city, they started burning and looting it. Fortunately, a regiment that consisted of Poles under the command of colonel Mostsitskiy saved the city from complete devastation. Until November 1, 1918 the city was controlled by Austrians, who while retreating gave the power back to Ukrainians.
Stanyslaviv Under the Western Ukrainian National Republic (the WUNR)
It was a short period of time turned residents’ consciousness upside down. The city which was considered to be Polish became Ukrainian; and furthermore, it became the capital of a new state. A court building is situated on 11 Hriunvaldska St., it was built for the railroad administration. They had to move here after lease contract on the building on Halytska Street expired. The author of the project was Richard Trost, engineer at the General railroad direction in Vienna. The modern style building was erected in 1912-1914 in ‘modern’ style and was decorated with Greek elements: columns, porches etc. During the Western Ukrainian National Republic (the WUNR) from January 1 to May 1919 the Cabinet of Ministers was situated there. People appreciated not only the events of that time but also the building itself, pointing out that it was a good choice. They were also surprised by the tolerance of new state leaders who easily communicated with simple people and didn’t require too much attention to themselves.
Stanyslaviv under the Polish Ruling
For 20 years Stanislaviv was under Polish control. But despite all the difficulties our city continued to develop. During these two decades some interesting buildings appeared in the city which are worth of special attention. Polish architect Stanislav Trelya was the most famous at that time. He was the one who rebuilt rebuilt the City Hall in 1935 on the same place where the previous one had been destroyed during the World War I. It is the only Town Hall in Ukraine (and a rare variant in the world) built in Constructivism style.
Stanislav during the World War II
In the beginning of World War II after the Red army came into the city it was renamed to Stanislav. On September 23, 1939 the fist session of the City Council took place and Soviet executive body of local authorities was set up. On December 4, 1939, after reunification of the Western Ukraine and the USSR, our city became the regional centre of Stanislav Region. Many Ukrainian secondary schools were opened and in 1940 the first Precarpathian high educational establishment was created – the Stanislav Pedagogical Institute (now V. Stefanyk Precarpathian National University).
Soviet Stanislav —Ivano-Frankivsk
There is no point in talking much in order to describe the Soviet period of life in Stanislav. The most prominent event of that time was the renaming of the city into Ivano-Frankivsk, according to the published Order of Presidium of Verkhovna Rada of USSR (Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). It happened on November 9, 1962 when Stanislav was celebrating its 300th anniversary. The Soviet period left its own prints such as: buildings called “khruschovkas”, many factories on the outskirts of the city, nine-storey-buildings, urbanistic murals on walls and facades of many buildings. It was also characterized by territorial extension of the city in all directions, establishment of new districts in IvanoFrankivsk (“Pozytron”, “Kaskad”) and by adjunction of the villages Pasichna, Opryshivtsi, Mykytyntsi, Uhornyky, Kryhivci, Hryplyn and Vovchyntsi to Ivano-Frankivsk. Taras Shevchenko City Park was opened in 1946. It occupies 22 hectares. In 1955 the city lake appeared on the map of Ivano-Frankivsk. The most beautiful buildings of that time in the city were Ivano Frankivsk Regional Drama Theatre, the building of regional administration and the airport.
During the period of independence our city has been modernized and got its new appearance. Ivan Franko monument was opened on August 26, 1995. Then the boom of restoration and constructions works of the city buildings began. In 1995 the population of the city was 251 869. In 2012, “Focus” magazine rated Ivano-Frankivsk as the best city for living, among 50 other Ukrainian cities.